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North Africa
Big Cities

Empires of Asia Europe and Africa during (-500 - +2000)

Outlook: Seljuks- Mongols-Timur-Ottomans-Moguls-Safavids-Fall of East Roman Empire: Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires  
Evolution of Turkish Empires: Evaluation of Seljuks- Mongols-Timur-Ottomans-Moguls-Safavids-Fall of East Roman Empire  
Ottomans: History of Ottomans-Turkiye-Turkey
Ottoman Empire, Acquisitions 1683

Seljuk Turks

Seljuk Empire at its greatest extent in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I.

The Turco Safavids were a dynastic family that ruled over modern-day Iran. They sustained one of the longest running empires of Iranian history, lasting from 1501 to 1736. At the height of their reign, the Safavids controlled not only Iran, but also the countries we now know as Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Soon after the Safavids rose to power, they established Twelver Shiism (the largest branch of Shi’a Islam), as the official religion of their dynasty. This distinguished the Safavids from their neighboring and rival empires—the Ottomans (to their west in Turkey), and the Mughals (to their east in India). The Ottomans and Mughals adhered to Sunni Islam. While Shi’a and Sunni share many core Islamic beliefs, the main difference has to do with who succeeded the Prophet Muhammad upon his death in 632. The Sunnis believed the leader should be elected amongst the people, while the Shi’a believed the leader should follow the lineage of Prophet Muhammad’s family.

Safavid Empire

The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I

Shah Mosque (Isfahan)

Why did the Turkic Mughal Empire Collapse?

The Turkic Mughal Empire was an early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries. For some two hundred years, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus river basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan plateau in south India.

The Mughal Empire - Babur Imparatorlugu

Tac Mahal

Timurid Empire

The Timurid Empire was a Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Iran, the southern region of the Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary  Russia,  India,  Pakistan, Syria and Turkey.

The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan, regarded himself as Genghis's heir, and associated much with the Borjigin. Timur continued vigorous trade relations with Ming China and the Golden Horde, with Chinese diplomats like Ma Huan and Chen Cheng regularly traveling west to Samarkand to buy and sell goods. The empire led to the Timurid Renaissance, particularly during the reign of astronomer and mathematician Ulugh Begh.

By 1467, the ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation. However, members of the Timurid dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century,  Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded  Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there. Twenty years later, he used this kingdom as a staging ground to invade India and establish the Mughal Empire.

The power of Timurids declined rapidly during the second half of the 15th century, largely due to the Timurid/Mongol tradition of partitioning the empire as well as several civil wars. The Aq Qoyunlu conquered most of Iran from the Timurids, and by 1500, the divided and wartorn Timurid Empire had lost control of most of its territory, and in the following years was effectively pushed back on all fronts. Persia, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and Eastern Anatolia fell quickly to the Shiite Safavid Empire, secured by Shah Ismail I in the following decade. Much of the Central Asian lands was overrun by the Uzbeks of Muhammad Shaybani who conquered the key cities of Samarkand and Herat in 1505 and 1507, and who founded the Khanate of Bukhara. From Kabul, the Mughal Empire was established in 1526 by Babur, a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty though it was directly inherited from the Timurids. By the 17th century, the Mughal Empire ruled most of India but eventually declined during the following century. The Timurid dynasty finally came to an end as the remaining nominal rule of the Mughals was abolished by the British Empire following the 1857 rebellion.

Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur

Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur

Detailed map of the Timurid Empire with its tributary states and sphere of influence in Western-Central Asia (1402-1403)


Mongols: Mongol Empire - from Genghis to Kublai The extent of the Mongol Empire

The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate

The History of North Africa Explained: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt  
The First Gokturk The First Gokturk

Göktürk Empire

Huns-Hun Turks: Attila The Hun: Fall of (West) Roman Empire


Huns-Hun Turks: Attila The Hun Huns-Hun Turks: Attila The Hun Huns-Hun Turks: Attila The Hun

A map of Europe in 450 AD, showing the Hunnic Empire under Attila in orange
Roman Empire - West and East (Byzantine) - World History Roma İmparatorluğu'nun en geniş sınırları.

Bizans İmparatorluğu (476-1400)


Helens: Empire of Alexander the Great

Alexander's empire and his route - Büyük İskender'in kurduğu imparatorluk
Ancient Persia: Cyrus the Great and the Achaemenid Empire: Zoroastrianis I. Darius (BC 522 - BC 486) 1st Persian Empire-Achaemenid Empire
Turkish World: Overview and Spread of Turks: Turks, Origins, Turkish (Turkish Language), Turkish Empires Turkish World: Spread of Turks

Turkish World: Spread of Turks





About TransAnatolie


TransAnatolie Tour (Multi-Lingual Cultural Tour Operator)

TransAnatolie Tour is a subgroup of Anadolu and is a Multi-Lingual Cultural Tour Operator in Anatolia (Asia Minor) Turkey.

TransAnatolie Tour has the ambition and the capacity to be become one of the leading provider and operator of archaeological, historical, belief (biblical) and cultural heritage tours and specialty travel with high Quality of Service (QoS) concept.

TransAnatolie Tour develops its programs with a network of Specialists, who are well recognized, local, regional, national, and international professionals at the top of their fields. These Specialists share their knowledge, insights and vision providing an in-depth insiders understanding of what distinguishes a particular culture and what factors shaped its evolution.

TransAnatolie Tours are executed in five languages (Dutch, English, French, German and Turkish) with high QoS concept by Tourism Professionals of valuable experience, intelligence and high intellectual capacity.

TransAnatolie Tour executive and operations teams have been at the cutting edge of international tour (holiday) operations and specialty travel since 1990s, working with organizations, universities and museums to provide unique travel experiences, cultural and belief (biblical) tours (holidays/trips) to their memberships.

Multi-Lingual TransAnatolie Tour team members have many years of valuable experience in providing individuals and organizations with high quality cultural, historical, belief/biblical, archaeological, architectural tours and travel experiences with high quality of service (QoS).

TransAnatolie has immersed travelers in Anatolia's most fascinating ancient cultures and provided enriching travel experiences.

TransAnatolie (International Multi-Lingual Cultural Tour Operator) has also been in small boat cruises, building exciting travel packages around these unique vessels.

TransAnatolie is now expanding its distribution by making these high quality, unique travel products and programs available to the public. Supported by our international network of offices and affiliates worldwide, the aim of TransAnatolie Team of travel professionals and passionate program specialists is to make your next 'vacation' a truly rewarding travel experience.


TransAnatolie Tour is a member of

  • Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Licence No. 4938)

  • Ankara Chamber of Commerce (Trade registry under No. 54/1024)

  • Turkish-French Cultural Association

  • Turkish Association at the United Nations

  • Union of Turkish Tour Operators (TÜRSAB)

  • Union of Multi-Lingual Professional Tourism Guides (TUREB-ARED)

  • Ankara Cultural Tourism Association (BATUDER) 

  • Nigde Cultural Association 

  • Aksaray Cultural Association 

  • Arts & Cultural Association of Taspinar.


TransAnatolie info-webs (pages)


On these webs you will find background information about our company, our offices, our current job offers and more info about current and future products and services.

If you could not find the information you need on these pages and/or on our other pages, or for inquires please do not hesitate to contact us at:  info[at]transanatolie.com

TransAnatolie Tour
Multilingual Cultural Tour Provider and Operator
A - Group License N°4938 - The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism








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Last modified: 2023-10-28



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