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Anatolian Civilizations




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Discover Anatolia Turkey-Türkiye and Ancient Anatolian Civilizations of Turkey-Türkiye

Explore Cultural Heritage of Turkey - Türkiye - Turquie - Turkije - Türkei - Asia Minor -  Anatolia - Anatolie - Anatolië  with TransAnatolie Tour

"The gateway between Europe and Asia..."
"A country situated at the heart of the oldest continents of earth..."
"The crossroads of many important routes since centuries..."
"A bridge between ages, nations and civilizations..."
"The cradle of civilization..."
"The heartland of civilizations..."
“Crossroads of Civilizations...”
“The Land of the rising sun...”
“The Land of a Thousand Gods...”

All these words are used by different civilizations to define Anatolia in through the history.
Anatolia is surrounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Aegean Sea -itself an arm of the Mediterranean.
As a bridge between Asia and Europe, Anatolia was a meeting point of many cultures and it was a place of birth of many important civilizations.
Between ca. 11,000 and 9000 B.C. in Anatolia the first permanent villages was emerged in southeastern and central Anatolia.
Then the Hatties and Hittites established the first state in Anatolia.
After Hittites, Anatolia housed Phrygian Civilization, Urartu Civilization, Lydian Civilization, Carian Civilization, Lycian, Hellenistic Civilization and Roman-Byzantine Civilizations.
 Subsequently Turkish Cultures and Civilizations evolved in Anatolia.


History of Anatolia



Ancient Anatolia




History of Anatolia & Turkey: Timeline of Turkey’s History


The history of human habitation in Anatolia, heartland of the Turkish Republic, goes back 25,000 years—an incredible stretch of time.


The history of Anatolia & Turkey from 23,000 BC to 1923 AD.


Karain Cave


Continuously inhabited by humans for 25,000 years…Karain Cave


Neolithic - Karahantepe


Karahan Tepe 


Neolithic - Göbekli Tepe


Humankind’s first temple was built by hunter-gatherers at Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Anatolia even before the invention of agriculture and pottery. More… Göbekli Tepe






Hatti Civilization (2500-2000 B.C.)




The Hittites (1900-1200 BC)


The Biblical empire that fought with Pharaoh. More…Hittites






Phrygia (1200-600 BC)


The Phrygians under King Midas gave us embriodery, cymbals, the musical triangle, and more.  Phrygia


Hellenic Civilization (1200-600 BC)


Western civilization started here. Hellens


Hellenistic: Alexander the Great (334 BC)


Conquering the world in his early 30s….


The Romans in Anatolia (250 BC-330 AD)


To the Romans, Anatolia was the province of Asia Minor.Ancient Rome
Roman Empire


The Journeys of St. Paul


He was from Tarsus, on the Mediterranean coast, so this was his homeland….


The Byzantine Empire (330-1453 AD)


A thousand years of art, culture, religion and political turmoil. Byzantine


The Seljuk Turks (1071-1243)


Omar Khayyam, Mevlana Jelaleddin Rumi, civil tolerance, constant war, and great architecture….Seljuk Turks


The Ottoman Empire (1288-1923)


From warrior principality to huge empire...Ottoman Empire


The Turkish Republic (1923-Present)


A modern state built on the ruins of a medieval theocratic monarchy. Turkey


Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)


Brilliant general, masterful statesman, social reformer, powerful advocate of secularism and women’s rights.


Anatolia and the Caucasus: Overview, Timeline and Key Events (8000 B.C.-1800 A.D.) (pdf)


Anatolia (Anadolu)

Stone Age

Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Age) (2.6 million years BC - 10000 BC)

Mid Stone Age (Mesolithic)

New Stone Age (Neolithic (around 10000BC-4500BC))

Copper Age (Chalcolithic Age) (c. 5500–3000 BC)

Bronze Age (3000–1200 BC)

Early Bronze Age (3000–2500 BC)

Middle Bronze Age (2500–2000 BC)

Late Bronze Age (2000–1200 BC)



·         Old Kingdom of Hittites

·         Middle Kingdom of Hittites

·         New Kingdom of Hittites

·         Syro-Hittite era of Hittites

Mycenaean presence

Iron Age (c. 1300–600 BC)

Western Anatolia

·         Troad

·         Aeolis

·         Ionia

·         Lydia (Maeonia)

·         Caria

·         Lycia

Central Anatolia

·         Phrygia

 Eastern Anatolia 

·         Cimmeria

·         Urartu

·         Assyria


Ancient Civilizations
Karain Cave
Karahan Tepe
Göbekli Tepe
Ancient Rome

Silk Road
World History
Ancient DestinationS Turkey







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Last modified: 2023-10-28



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